Monday, 20 February 2012

PLKN made best youth


The national service program was first proposed in late 2001, brought to committee the following year, and was finally brought to action in 2003. Initially it was thought that all youths of a certain age would be drafted but later the numbers were restricted due to lack of resources. The program was also initially planned as a 2-year program, which was later reduced to a year, and then six months, and to its present three-month length. The issue of conscription has always been a sensitive political issue in Malaysia because of the ethnic divisions of the country. The rationale for National Service was to bond the youth of Malaysia together and create a Malaysian nation, as the problem of racial polarization was found to pervade educational institutions in Malaysia.

[edit]Selection of conscripts

In late December 2003, the names of 85,000 conscripts for the first National Service program was made public. The government announced that these youths were randomly selected out of the roughly 450,000 youths born in 1986, through a computerized process.[2] Conscripts are 18 years of age and picked from a national database that includes all citizens registered with a Malaysian ID card, whether born locally or overseas. Conscripts were informed of their participation in the program by mail at the address listed on their identification card. They are also able to check their status on the program's website, or by SMS. Lists of conscripts names and ID numbers are also published in major newspapers.
Deserters and draft dodgers are subject to punishment of a fine of up to but not exceeding RM 3000, and/or up to six months of jail. Deferrals to a later date are allowed. Exclusion from the program requires that the conscript fall under one of the following ten categories:[3]
Non selected civilians are also allowed to volunteer to enter the program after filling out certain forms in camps.

[edit]Objectives of the PLKN

  • Develop a young generation who are patriotic and with love and devotion for their country
  • Enhance unity among the multi-racial communities in the country
  • Instill a spirit of caring and volunteerism among society
  • Produce an active, intelligent and confident generation
  • Develop positive characteristics among the younger generation through good values
  • Develop a generation that is obedient and loyal to the government


The program has its own theme song and logo. Conscripts are issued two pairs each of three different types of uniforms: a class uniform, a sports uniform, and a combat uniform. The combat uniform's design is of blue camouflage stripes, made out of light blue, dark blue, white, and black.[4] The general color scheme for the class and sports uniforms is blue, and black. Criticisms against trainees' uniforms are apparent as blue clothes are easily spotted in jungles and verdant vegetation areas except the sky and water.

[edit]Ranks in the National Service

Conscripts exhibiting promising leadership capabilities are promoted to rank-holders during the early course of the training. These rank-holders are entrusted with military officer-like responsibilities and authorizations throughout the remaining course of the training. The ranking system however differs slightly among camps throughout the country according to each camp commandant.
Among the ranks available are:
  • Chief: Leader of all conscripts in camp.
  • Deputy Chief: Assistant to the Chief, usually 2-3 per camp.
  • Company Commander (CC): Also known as Squad IC (In-Command), leader of a company. Usually 1 per gender for each company.
  • Assistant Company Commander (ACC): Also known as Company Sergeant, assistant to the CC. Usually 1-2 to each CC.
Other ranks (varies from camp to camp, not all camps have the following officers):
  • Public Relations Officer: Normally one for each camp.
  • Religious Affairs Officer: Normally one for every major religion in the camp.
  • Quarter Master: Normally one for each camp.
  • Sports and Recreation Officer: Normally one for each camp.
  • Dorm Administrator: One for each dorm.
  • Logistics Personnel: One for each camp, as liaison between conscripts and the camp logistics department.


The program is split into 4 official modules:
  • Physical Module (Fizikal) - Marching (Kawad), hand to hand combat (Tempur Tanpa Senjata, largely similar to taekwondo), Colt M16 usage,[5] obstacle courses (Kembara Halangan), abseilling (Tali Tinggi), Flying Fox, canoeing (Kayak), camping ("Wirajaya") (During Wirajaya, trainees will be also given mock missions such as:Search and rescue, night patrols, perimeter Guard, first aid and at night trainees have to guard their company flag from being stolen by instructors of other companies who would infiltrate their opponent companies' bases) Navigation (Navigasi), survival training and first aid training.
  • Nation Building Module (Kenegaraan) - Classroom based. Nation's history, sovereignty and dignity, Malaysia and international affairs, Defence and National Security and Citizen's responsibility to the nation, and loyalty towards the current government, Barisan Nasional. The classes are based on group based training (Latihan Dalam Kumpulan).
  • Character Building Module (Pembinaan Karakter) - Classroom based. It comprises 2 modules. The first one, Module A speaks about Bringing Out The Best In Me while the second module, Module B, relates to Bringing Out The Best In Others. This component is experential based and relies on games and activities as the means of teaching. It is about instilling good values and Self-confidence, leadership and self-evaluation.
  • Community Service Module (Khidmat Komuniti) - Trainees are sent in groups to places in surrounding areas to give the trainees a chance to serve society. This is about building and restoring public amenities. It also teaches them environmental restoration and protection as well.
In the 2004 program, conscripts (referred to as "trainees" or "Wira" for boys and "Wirawati" for girls) spent 2 months in physical training camp, followed by a final month in a university setting. The program consisted of three separate, overlapping batches. The first batch of 24,000 began in mid-February and ended in the beginning of May, while the second and third batches began in March and ended in June. Trainees were divided among 79 training camps scattered all over the country. Each camp was supposed to contain a good mix of youth from different ethnic groups and locations.

[edit]Budget and spending

Trainees were initially given a RM300 allowance by the government. Beginning in January 2008, this amount has been raised to RM150/month, or RM450 total.[6] Trainee allowances come in the form of a Sijil Simpanan Premium (Premium Savings Certificate) from Bank Simpanan Nasional, or an account with Agro Bank Malaysia.[citation needed] The accounts with Agro Bank Malaysia have been criticized for taking out RM 20 from each account, for processing and ATM card fees.[citation needed]
According to Deputy Defence Minister Datuk Wira Abu Seman Yusop, RM2.37bil has been spent to finance the national service (NS) programme since it was introduced in 2004. RM608.6mil was spent in 2004, RM604.8mil in 2005, RM588.2mil in 2006 and RM565mil in 2007. Defence Minister Datuk Seri Najib Tun Razak had said earlier that the programme would not exceed RM500mil a year.
YearBudget[7] (RM)
TotalRM2.37 bil
2007565.0 mil
2006588.2 mil
2005604.8 mil
2004608.6 mil

[edit]List of National Service Training Camps

There are many National Service training camps in every state in Malaysia except the Federal Territories of Kuala LumpurLabuan and Putrajaya.
Initially, the program involved a two-month placement in a rural outdoor camp, followed by one month in an urban setting (a university, or sport facility). Following university complaints of vandalism, the urban setting placement was discontinued after the 2004 program. The canvas tents in the outdoor camps that housed 10 trainees each were replaced with concrete dormitories that housed 20 trainees each. Presently, trainees are now housed at only one location throughout the duration of the program.
JohorMersingPusat Bina Semangat YPJ
MersingKem Rekreasi Pertanian Teluk Sari
PagohNasuha Camp
DesaruKem Desaru Gerak Khas
Batu PahatSemberong Camp
KluangKem PLKN Pth Padang Hijau
TangkakPLKN Kem Sri Ledang
KedahLangkawiBeringin Beach Resort Camp
SikRimba Taqwa Camp
Kuala NerangDusun Resort Camp
KulimPLKN Bukit Besar Camp
MerbokDamai Park Resort Camp
SintokPLKN Universiti Utara Malaysia Sintok Camp
BalingKem Rekreasi Belia
LangkawiKem Lagenda Seri Negeri
Kubang PasuSri Kandi Camp
Kubang PasuGardenia Camp
Kubang PasuD' Jelapang Camp
KelantanPasir PutehKisana Beach Resort Camp
Gua MusangEtnobotani Training Camp
Pasir MasCancun Park Camp
Kuala KraiBatu Jong Training Camp
MelakaMasjid TanahWarisan Camp
Ayer KerohAyer Keroh Recreational Park Camp
Pekan AsahanJasinKem Lagenda Gunung Ledang, Asahan
Alor GajahKem PLKN Putra-Putri
Negeri SembilanJempolDe Bana Camp
RembauUlu Pari Camp
Port DicksonPDS Resort Camp
Kuala PilahKarisma Camp
MantinSeri Perkasa Camp
RembauTitian Bintagor
Tanjung TuanRachado Bay Camp
PahangRaubBenum Hill Resort Camp
Bandar Muadzam ShahPinggiran Pelangi Camp
Kuala RompinSummerset Resort Camp
Lake ChiniLake Chini Resort Camp
GambangGambang Camp (Agro Resort Sungai Semuji)
CheratingKem Cahaya Gemilang
PekanSemarak Camp
BentongChamang Camp
PenangSungai BakapSri Impian Camp
Balik PulauKem PLKN White Resort
Balik PulauKem PLKN Sri Mutiara
Bukit MertajamSyruz Camp
PerakManjungKem Akademi Kepimpinan Segari
Ayer TawarPLKN Kem Kg Baharu (De Air' Resort)
Sungai SiputTerkok Camp
LumutTeluk Rubiah Camp
GopengKem Taman Kepimpinan Gemilang
SungkaiKem Sinaran Suria
SelamaTegas Mesra Camp
ChenderiangSentosa Camp
Gunung SemanggolJiwa Murni Camp
PerlisWang KelianTasik Meranti Camp
BeseriTasoh Camp
Padang BesarGuar Chenderai Camp
SabahSandakanBagai Budi Resort Camp
TuaranKK Dibawah Bayu Camp
SipitangKubena Camp
PaparOvai Wawasan Camp
TawauSan Shui Camp
Kota BeludSinar Jaya Camp
TambunanTanaki Camp
SarawakBetongBukit Saban Resort Camp
MiriMiri Camp, Batang Rait
SibuJunaco Park Camp
BintuluSimilajau Camp
SerianJuara Camp
SematanPutra Sentosa Camp
SibuBumimas Camp
BauPuncak Permai Camp
SelangorKuala LangatPaya Indah Camp
Kuala Kubu BharuKem Bina Semangat
RawangTemasya Rimba Templer, Templer Park
SepangPLKN Princess Haliza Camp
BeranangMillennium Camp
BantingJugra Banting Camp
BehrangGeo Cosmo Camp
SemenyihPLKN Setia Ikhlas Camp
TerengganuSetiuMerang Suria Holiday Camp
SetiuKem Peladang Setiu Agro Resort
KemamanCheneh Cemerlang Training Camp
KertehBakau Resort Camp


The program is staggered into several batches (kumpulan) over the year. Collectively, all batches in a year are known as a series. Batches are known as "Batch X, Series Y". For example, the pilot batch in the pilot series would be referred to as Batch 1 Series 1, while the second batch in the 2008 series would be Batch 2 Series 5.
In the 2007 program, 100,000 people will be selected out of the country's youths born in 1989. They will be placed in 79 training camps, in three different batches. Each batch will undergo three months of training. However, the 2007 batches will not overlap, as with the previous year's. Instead, the three batches will span a total of nine months. Training of the first batch started on 1 January 2007 and will end at 11 March 2007. There were delays for trainees from the East Coast due to severe flooding in the region.
Including 2008, a total of 339,186 youths have been assigned to National Service since beginning in 2004.[7] The program is run by Jabatan Latihan Khidmat Negara (JLKN) or National Service Department, a department under the Malaysian Ministry of Defence.


Despite progress towards ethnic harmony made in Malaysia in recent times it is clear that there are still problems. Outside the Human Rights Charter Contraventions, other problems are also as follows :
After the 2004 pilot batch completed its National Service, the youth wing of the MCA (Malaysian Chinese Association, Malaysia's largest ethnic Chinese party), on behalf of themselves and 8 other Chinese-based youth organizations, issued a memorandum to the National Service Training Council calling for more non-Malay trainers. They also criticised the lack of counsellors, imbalanced diet for the participants, poor communications among the various secretariats and no code of conduct for camp commandants or directors, trainers, facilitators and supervisors. Despite this somewhat diplomatic language, it is clear that there are problems with bullying by NCOs and Officers, a lack of cultural sensitivity by the Barisan political party affiliated organizers, and a reluctance to provide a proper diet for the mainly Buddhist Chinese Malaysians and Hindu Indian Malaysians.
Other main controversy issues of Malaysian National Service include the selection system where the government computer database system picks up the trainees randomly without even knowing about their social status. Some cases include poor teenagers who need to work for their living and young mothers with newborn babies who were selected for the program, which are considered as inhumane. However, selected trainees for more recent sessions with special cases can send a letter of appeal to be exempted from the training and will usually be approved.
In 2005, concerns were raised in Parliament that youth were being taught to use firearms, namely M-16 rifles, in National Service. Deputy Prime Minister, Najib Razak, stated that this was merely a pilot project. However, Democratic Action Party Member of Parliament (MP) for the constituency of Batu GajahPerak, claimed that the Parliamentary Select Committee on Unity and National Service had not been informed of the project. The firearms module is presently an official module in the program.
Trainees are required to submit a health status declaration form but are not required to seek qualified medical opinion in completing this declaration (unlike, for example, United States Space Campwhich requires qualified medical certification of health status). Trainees are required to complete a medical checkup before entering the program, which is provided for free at major government clinics. This medical checkup, however, is not reinforced.
Despite of the numbers of fatalities and casualties among trainees, the government is still insisting to continue the program. Recently, Najib Razak had hinted that the program could be extended to 2 years, but he doubted that the parents would accept his proposal.

[edit]Official reception

The program has been plagued with claims of poor management right from its inception.[2] There have been a total of 16 trainee deaths.[8]
When pressured by more calls to suspend the program because of a 16th death, Najib responded that it was not feasible to stop the program since "many parties are involved".[9]

[edit]Major Incidents


  • Rape, Merang Camp, Setiu, Terengganu, on 28 February. A female trainee, 17, was raped by Corporal Zuki Mohd, 30, in a Perodua Kancil in the Rhu Tapai agro-industrial estate in Setiu between 7.28pm and 9.10pm on February 28. Zuki Mohd had been employed as a physical module instructor at Merang Camp. The trial began on 14 December 2004 at the Terengganu Sessions Court, and ended on 20 December 2005. Zuki, a military personnel from Kampung Bari Besar, Setiu, was convicted of raping the girl by the Terengganu Sessions Court and was sentenced to 12 years' jail and three strokes of the rotan. The female trainee later sued the trainer as well as the government for negligence.
  • Lost in jungle, Ovai Wawasan Camp, Papar, Sabah, on 21 February. Around 600 trainees and instructors were lost for almost 12 hours after following the wrong trail during what was meant to be an hour-long afternoon hiking trip. Except for kitchen staff, trainees who had gone to church that day, and several staff members who stayed behind to keep an eye on camp facilities, close to the entire 600+ member camp were involved in the hiking trip. After close to 12 hours, a full name count was finally issued at 2 am..


  • Food poisoning, PDS Resort Camp, Port Dickson, Negri Sembilan, on 16 May. 60 trainees and instructors at Pusat Latihan Khidmat Negara, Port Dickson Camp, Negeri Sembilan.[10]


  • Food poisoning, Sri Impian Camp, Sungai Bakap, Penang, on 30 December. Trainees suffered food poisoning due to food served on the first day of camp, 30 December.
  • Lost in jungle, Kem Lagenda Gunung Ledang, Jasin, Malacca, on 30 April. Twenty-three lost their way during a jungle trekking exercise at Asahan Forest Reserve. The instructor in charge of the group was subsequently dismissed with immediate effect for negligence.[11]


  • High fever, Kem Desaru Gerak Khas, Kota Tinggi, Johor, on 31 May. 58 trainees came down with vomiting and high fever on 31 May, and were admitted to Kota Tinggi Hospital. The incident began when trainees began to fall sick after returning to camp on 28 May, from the Wirajaya module (a two-day jungle trekking exercise).[12]
  • Food poisoning, Kem Barracuda, Setiu Agro, Terengganu, on 29 May. 67 trainees developed stomachaches believed to be caused by due to food poisoning on 28 May, barely a week after nine trainees from the same camp suffered the same ailment. Fourteen trainees were warded in the Setiu Hospital, while 53 received outpatient treatment. Four food handlers at the camp also received outpatient treatments at the same hospital. The food was catered from outside, as the camp's canteen had been closed after the May 23 incident when four of the trainees were warded for food poisoning.[13]
  • Food poisoning, Kem Barracuda, Setiu Agro, Terrenganu, on 23 May. Nine trainees fell ill due to food poisoning, with four trainees being warded at Setiu Hospital. The camp's canteen was subsequently closed down.[14]
  • Outbreak of unknown fever, Kem PLKN Jiwa Murni, Semanggol, Perak, in late April. At least 10 trainees were warded at the Taiping Hospital, while 80 others were being treated at the camp, and all trainees were given blood tests, for an outbreak of an unidentified fever. The Kerian district health office placed the camp under quarantine. The quarantine was only discovered a few days after being initialized, when parents were turned away from picking up their children for a scheduled week-long break.


  • An 18-year-old ethnic Chinese trainee was alleged to have been sexually assaulted by more than 20 unidentified men at Lake Chini Resort Camp, Lake Chini, Pahang, on 23 June while making a call from a phone booth on camp grounds at night. Accompanied by her father, the trainee lodged a police report and underwent a medical check-up the next day and did not subsequently return to camp. As of one week later, camp authorities were purportedly pressuring the trainee to return to training.[15]
  • A racial brawl involving almost 100 trainees occurred in the canteen of Lake Chini Resort Camp, Lake Chini, Pahang, on 27 June following a misunderstanding arising from trainees "inadvertently [shoving] into each other" while rearranging chairs. Following this incident, 17 trainees were arrested by police and held at Pekan district police lock-up for two days before being released after meeting their parents.[15]


  • Harassment, Sri Impian Camp, Sungai Bakap, Penang, in mid January. A Sikh youth woke up discovering his hair was cut by 50 to 60 cm while he was asleep in his dormitory. The incident traumatised the youth because it violated his religious rights (Kesh (Sikhism)). It is under probe ordered by the Defence Ministry.[16]

[edit]National Service trainee fatalities


  • Awang Mohd Fazil Awang Borhan, 17, attached to Kem Simalajau, Bintulu, Sarawak. Died on 23 April in a drowning accident. He had been swimming with 36 other trainees at Sungai Cina, Matang, Kuching, Sarawak.
  • T. Saravana, 18, attached to Kem Ethnobotany, Gua Musang, Kelantan. The trainee from Taiping, Perak drowned while picnicking at Sungai Taman Wangi, Gua Musang, about 3 kilometres from his camp, with 250 trainees and 10 trainers.


  • Nurul Ashikin Karino, 17, attached to Kem Shan Sui, Tawau, Sabah. Died on 14 May after being injured during training. Karino Jalani (father of the deceased) claimed that he was not allowed to meet his daughter who fell and was injured as part of a training accident.
  • S. Theresa Pauline, 17, attached to Kem Karisma, Kuala Pilah, Negeri Sembilan. Died on 11 June after being admitted to the hospital on 23 May due to having fits. Her death was attributed to viralmeningoencephalitis. Her father, S. Sarimuthu was paid RM 32,000.[17]


  • Haziq Jaafar, 17, attached to Kem Padang Hijau, Kluang, Johor. The trainee from Kota Tinggi, Johor, died after a fight with another trainee at Kem Padang Hijau.


  • Teng Shian Shen, 18 attached to Kem Pasir Panjang, Port Dickson, Negri Sembilan. Died two weeks after being asked to return home from her training at the Pasir Panjang due to breathing difficulties.
  • Ili Ameera Azlan, 17, attached to Kem Ayer Keroh, Ayer Keroh, Melaka. Died on 18 January at Malacca Hospital, after suffering breathing difficulties.[18] The parents were paid RM 35,000.
  • Prema Elenchelian, 18, attached to Kem Kisana Beach Resort, Pasir Puteh, Kelantan. The trainee from Kajang, Selangor, was found unconscious in a toilet at Jeram Linang (0230 hours) on 1 March. She was taken to the Tengku Anis Hospital where she was pronounced dead. Prema's death brought to 12 the number of trainees who have died since the programme began in 2004.[19]
  • Mohd Rafi Ameer, 18, attached to Cheneh Cemerlang Camp, Kemaman, Pahang. Died at 10.30pm on 3 September, after having fever for 1 week. Rafi had previously called his sister and told her that he had a fever, and that his leg had been swollen for nearly a week after he fell during training.[20]


  • Too Hui Min, 18, attached to Kem Geo Kosmo, Behrang, Selangor. Died on 7 May at Slim River Hospital, Perak, three days after she started complaining of constipation. The cause of death was later determined as being toxic megacolon - her colon had been swollen and the lining had thinned due to septicemia. Her death was the 16th National Service death, and was followed by several DAP leaders calling for the suspension or even the scrapping of the National Service programme.[21][22]
  • Afiq Zuhairi Ahmat Rozali, 18, attached to Kem Sentosa, Chenderiang, Perak. Died on 16 April at Teluk Intan Hospital, Perak, after a brief febrile illness. He was treated by camp paramedics several times before finally being transferred to hospital where he died in less than 24 hours.[23]


  • Abdul Malik Ishak, 18, attached to Kem Guar Chenderai, Padang Besar, Perlis. Found dead in his bed on June 29, at Kem Guar Chenderai. He had not reported any problems on his self-reported health declaration form.[24]


  • 2 deaths 1 coma [25]
  • Sarawakian trainee collapsed and died in a hospital. [26]